Government Technology Purchasing: RFPs, RFQs, RFIs, Informal Purchasing—What's What?

Government Technology Purchasing: Formal and Informal Processes

In today’s fast-paced world, technology is advancing at an unprecedented rate, and it’s essential for government agencies to keep up with the latest trends to deliver efficient and effective services to citizens. However, purchasing technology can be a complex and challenging process, with different types of requests and documents involved.  

In this blog post, we will explore the differences between RFPs, RFQs, and RFIs, which are the three most common documents used in government technology purchasing, and help you navigate the process with confidence. Additionally, we’ll examine informal purchasing methods, such as buying schedules and “piggybacking,” while also considering the potential benefits of informal methods.  

Why Requests for Proposal (RFPs)? 

Government agencies are often required to make purchases through RFPs (Request for Proposals). This is because they are bound by strict regulations and accountability measures. The RFP process provides transparency and fairness, ensuring that taxpayer dollars are spent wisely and that contracts are awarded to the most qualified vendors. This process allows agencies to define their needs, requirements, and evaluation criteria clearly. Vendors then submit competitive proposals that meet these requirements.  

RFPs also allow agencies to negotiate and establish clear terms and conditions for the contract, minimizing the risk of disputes and legal challenges down the line. By following this process, government agencies can ensure that they are selecting the best value proposition for the services or products that they need.  

RFPs vs. RFIs and RFQs—What’s the Difference?  

While buyers perhaps are most familiar with purchasing through RFPs, buyers also can purchase through RFIs and RFQs. These processes have their own benefits and can help buyers achieve different goals. Read below to learn more about the specificities of each request. 

RFI (Request for Information) 

An RFI is often a preliminary inquiry document issued by a buyer to potential vendors to gather information about their capabilities, products, and services.  

Unlike an RFP, an RFI is typically less formal and does not require a detailed response from vendors. In fact, all agencies engage in requests for information in some capacity, even if it’s not a “formalized” process. For example, all buyers gather information, attend demos, and explore the market to see what options exist. This acts similarly to a released, documented RFI, simply minus the document itself. 

In technology purchasing, an RFI may be used to obtain information about the latest technology trends, potential vendors, or industry best practices.  

It should be noted that RFIs also do not require a cone of silence. CISA defines this term as “a period of no contact between agencies and vendors.” This measure is intended to further promote transparency in the buying process, but it isn’t required during an RFI, whereas it is in both RFQs and RFPs. In this sense, an RFI isn’t a “formal” process, unlike RFQs and RFPs. 

The potential advantage of using an RFI is that it allows buyers to gather information about potential vendors and solutions before issuing an RFP. This can help to streamline the RFP process and ensure that only qualified vendors are invited to submit proposals. 

RFQ (Request for Quotation) 

An RFQ is a document issued by a buyer to solicit price quotes from vendors for a specific product or service. In technology purchasing, an RFQ is typically used when the buyer knows exactly what they need and is seeking competitive pricing from vendors. Vendors are expected to provide a detailed breakdown of pricing, including any taxes, fees, or shipping costs.  

Ultimately, RFQs come down to pricing, and the lowest price will be awarded a contract. Also, it should be noted that RFQs, like RFPs, do require a cone of silence. 

The potential advantage of using an RFQ is that it can be a fast and efficient way to obtain competitive pricing from vendors. 

RFP (Request for Proposals)  

As we briefly mentioned above, an RFP is a formal document issued by a buyer, typically a government agency, to solicit proposals from vendors to meet specific requirements. In technology purchasing, an RFP outlines the scope of work, the specifications of the desired technology solution, and evaluation criteria.  

Vendors are expected to submit proposals that provide detailed information about their proposed solution, including pricing, delivery timeline, and any other relevant details.  

Additionally, vendors create detailed scoring sheets/rubrics to vet vendors against. These rubrics allow agencies to weigh certain features higher than others (e.g., certain functionalities, price, integration capabilities) and can allow agencies to decide whether price is an ultimate determining factor, unlike RFQs in which price ultimately informs final decisions. 

While the RFP process can be time-consuming, as vendors typically have several weeks to submit their proposals, the advantage of using an RFP process is that it provides a level playing field, ensuring that vendors have a fair and equal opportunity to compete for the contract.   

Informal Purchasing—What’s the deal?  

Informal purchasing refers to the process of making technology purchases outside of the traditional RFP and RFQ processes. This may involve making purchases directly from a vendor, using a cooperative purchasing agreement, or utilizing a simplified acquisition process. The advantage of informal purchasing is that it can be a fast and flexible way to obtain the technology products and services that a government agency needs. It can also reduce the administrative burden of the traditional purchasing process, saving time and money.   

It should be noted that informal purchasing methods require a higher level of research and investigation from buyers since there isn’t a pre-existing rubric method  

Informal Purchasing Options 

Informal technology purchasing can take many forms, including buying schedules/groups and piggybacking.  

Buying Schedules

Buying schedules or groups are agreements negotiated between a government agency and one or more vendors to purchase specific products or services at pre-negotiated prices. This approach can be an effective way for government agencies to quickly obtain the products and services they need without going through a lengthy procurement process. Additionally, buying schedules can provide cost savings by leveraging the purchasing power of multiple agencies.   

Although, purchasing through a buying schedule may require a higher level of research and investigation from individual buyers since there isn’t a pre-existing rubric for buyers to compare vendors against like there is in a formal RFP. 

For buyers to make sure they are selecting the best technology for their agency, officials should thoroughly research and vet multiple vendors. This is necessary for ensuring that a buyer selects the best vendor possible for their agency’s needs. 


Piggybacking is another form of informal technology purchasing in which a government agency utilizes a formal contract awarded (namely an RFP or RFQ) to another government agency to purchase technology products or services.  

For example, if a state agency has awarded a contract for cloud computing services, another state agency may be able to piggyback on that contract to purchase similar services without going through a separate procurement process. This system is designed to allow agencies to leverage existing formal contracts and research created by other agencies so that agencies don’t necessarily have to create an RFP from scratch. 

Piggybacking can potentially be a cost-effective and efficient way to obtain technology products and services, since it can be informed by existing contracts, thereby saving time and resources.


In conclusion, government agencies and offices have many options for purchasing technology. These range from formal RFP and RFQ processes, alongside information gathering (i.e., RFIs) and informal methods. Some of these informal methods include cooperative purchasing agreements and piggybacking on existing contracts.   

Each method has its own set of benefits, and the best approach will depend on the unique needs and circumstances of the agency or office. By carefully evaluating their technology requirements and considering the available purchasing options, government agencies can make informed decisions to ensure that they are getting the best value for their technology investments.  

Get the Support You Need Along the Way 

With the support of experts like CivicEye, government officials can navigate the procurement process with confidence and find the government technology that best meets their needs. 

CivicEye specializes in technology solutions for law enforcement agencies and prosecutors. Our team works alongside these agencies to evaluate their existing needs, identify the best purchasing avenue for their requirements, and provide ongoing support throughout the implementation process.   

CivicEye’s team has extensive experience in the government technology sector. We pride ourselves on providing tailored solutions to meet the unique needs of our clients.  

By working with CivicEye, government agencies and offices can be certain that they are getting the best technology solutions to support their vital work.  


To learn more about CivicRMS, CivicEye’s records management solution, click here to schedule a demo today.   


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